GRAPHENE MARKET

The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027

Published March 2018 by Future Markets, Inc. | 740 pages | 202 tables, 165 figures | Price £1000 | Table of contents

Future Markets, Inc. produced the first ever market report on graphene and the latest edition is now over 740 pages long with an additional 60 pages of content from the previous edition. We have greatly expanded the sections covering flexible electronics, wearables and energy and details on industry demand in tons (current and projected) has been added for key markets.

A number of graphene-enhanced products came to the market in 2017 in consumer electronic equipment, composites, energy storage etc. and commercial development will grow further in 2018 in automotive, flexible electronics, coatings and sensors.

Companies who have recently purchased this report include: Calloway GolfThe Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, GrafoidDenso CorporationITRICenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Directa-PlusKIST Korea Institute of Science and TechnologySasolLubrizolCabot CorporationICL and many more….

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities for 2017.
  • Current graphene products.
  • Market outlook for 2018.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • Market demand in tons 2017-2027.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Assessment of applications for other 2D materials.
  • Over 230 company profiles.

 

The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
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The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
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The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 58

  • 1.1    Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • 1.1    Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………. 61

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 63

  • 2.1    Two-dimensional (2D) materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
  • 2.2    Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
    • 2.2.1     The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
    • 2.2.2     The market in 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
    • 2.2.3     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
    • 2.2.4     Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
    • 2.2.5     Graphene investments 2016-2017…………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • 2.3    Market outlook for 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
    • 2.3.1     Global funding and initiatives…………………………………………………………………………………. 77
    • 2.3.2     Products and applications………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
    • 2.3.3     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
    • 2.3.4     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
    • 2.3.5     Market and technical challenges……………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • 2.4    Key players…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
    • 2.4.1     Asia-Pacific…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
    • 2.4.1.1       Australia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89
    • 2.4.2     North America………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
    • 2.4.3     Europe……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90

3    PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS………………………………………. 91

  • 3.1    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92

4    OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE…………………………………………………… 94

  • 4.1    History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
  • 4.2    Forms of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95
  • 4.3    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
  • 4.4    3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 98
  • 4.5    Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 98
    • 4.5.1     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100
    • 4.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
      • 4.5.2.1       Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics………………………………………………….. 100
      • 4.5.2.2       Energy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100
      • 4.5.2.3       Biomedicine and healthcare………………………………………………………………………… 101
      • 4.5.2.4       Other……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
      • 4.5.2.5       Pricing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102
    • 4.5.3     Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102

5    CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE……………………….. 104

  • 5.1    Comparative properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 105
  • 5.2    Cost and production……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
  • 5.3    Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………………………….. 107
  • 5.4    Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene……………………………………………. 108

6    OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………. 110

  • 6.1    Beyond moore’s law……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • 6.2    Batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
  • 6.3    PHOSPHORENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
    • 6.3.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
      • 6.3.1.1       Fabrication methods…………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
      • 6.3.1.2       Challenges for the use of phosphorene in devices………………………………………. 116
    • 6.3.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 116
      • 6.3.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
      • 6.3.2.2       Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
      • 6.3.2.3       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
      • 6.3.2.4       Supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
      • 6.3.2.5       Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119
      • 6.3.2.6       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119
    • 6.3.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • 6.4    GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)…………………………………………………………………… 121
    • 6.4.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 121
    • 6.4.2     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 121
    • 6.4.3     C2N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
    • 6.4.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122
      • 6.4.4.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
      • 6.4.4.2       Filtration membranes…………………………………………………………………………………… 122
      • 6.4.4.3       Photocatalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………… 123
      • 6.4.4.4       Batteries (LIBs)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 123
      • 6.4.4.5       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
    • 6.4.5     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 123
  • 6.5    GERMANENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
    • 6.5.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
    • 6.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
      • 6.5.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 125
      • 6.5.2.2       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 125
    • 6.5.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 126
  • 6.6    GRAPHDIYNE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
    • 6.6.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
    • 6.6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
      • 6.6.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
      • 6.6.2.2       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
      • 6.6.2.3       Separation membranes……………………………………………………………………………….. 128
      • 6.6.2.4       Water filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
      • 6.6.2.5       Photocatalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
      • 6.6.2.6       Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 128
    • 6.6.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 129
  • 6.7    GRAPHANE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
    • 6.7.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
    • 6.7.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
      • 6.7.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130
      • 6.7.2.2       Hydrogen storage………………………………………………………………………………………… 131
    • 6.7.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 131
  • 6.8    HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 6.8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 6.8.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
      • 6.8.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 133
      • 6.8.2.2       Fuel cells……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 133
      • 6.8.2.3       Adsorbents…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 133
      • 6.8.2.4       Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
      • 6.8.2.5       Textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
      • 6.8.2.6       Biomedical…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
    • 6.8.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • 6.9    MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)……………………………………………………………………………. 135
    • 6.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
    • 6.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
      • 6.9.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
      • 6.9.2.2       Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
      • 6.9.2.3       Piezoelectrics………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
      • 6.9.2.4       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
      • 6.9.2.5       Filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
      • 6.9.2.6       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 139
      • 6.9.2.7       Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
    • 6.9.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 140
  • 6.10      RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)……………………………………. 140
    • 6.10.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
    • 6.10.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
      • 6.10.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
    • 6.10.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 142
  • 6.11      SILICENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 142
    • 6.11.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143
    • 6.11.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
      • 6.11.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
      • 6.11.2.2     Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
      • 6.11.2.3     Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
      • 6.11.2.4     Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 145
      • 6.11.2.5     Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
    • 6.11.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 146
  • 6.12      STANENE/TINENE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
    • 6.12.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147
    • 6.12.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148
      • 6.12.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148
    • 6.12.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 148
  • 6.13      TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE……………………………………………………………………………………….. 149
    • 6.13.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
    • 6.13.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
      • 6.13.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
    • 6.13.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 150
  • 6.14      ANTIMONENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
    • 6.14.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
    • 6.14.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
  • 6.15      DIAMENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151
    • 6.15.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
    • 6.15.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
  • 6.16      INDIUM SELENIDE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
    • 6.16.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
    • 6.16.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
      • 6.16.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
  • 6.17      COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS…………. 154

7    GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS……………………………………………………… 156

  • 7.1    Large area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • 7.2    Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets…………………………………………………….. 157
  • 7.3    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 7.3.1     Production directly from natural graphite ore……………………………………………………….. 160
    • 7.3.2     Alternative starting materials………………………………………………………………………………… 160
    • 7.3.3     Quality………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
  • 7.4    Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………… 162
    • 7.4.1     Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)………………………………………………………………………….. 162
    • 7.4.2     Graphene nanoribbons………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
    • 7.4.3     Large-area graphene films…………………………………………………………………………………… 164
    • 7.4.4     Graphene oxide (GO)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 165
  • 7.5    Pros and cons of graphene production methods………………………………………………………….. 166
    • 7.5.1     Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)……………………………………………………………………….. 167
    • 7.5.2     Exfoliation method……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
    • 7.5.3     Epitaxial growth method……………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
    • 7.5.4     Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………….. 169
    • 7.5.5     Micromechanical cleavage method………………………………………………………………………. 170
    • 7.5.6     Green reduction of graphene oxide……………………………………………………………………… 170
    • 7.5.7     Plasma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
  • 7.6    Recent synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
  • 7.7    Synthesis methods by company…………………………………………………………………………………… 176

8    GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION…………………………………………………………….. 178

9    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………….. 182

  • 9.1    Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182
  • 9.2    Environmental, health and safety regulation………………………………………………………………… 182
    • 9.2.1     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 183
    • 9.2.2     United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
    • 9.2.3     Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 183
  • 9.3    Workplace exposure…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 184

10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS……………………………………………. 185

  • 10.1      Fabrication processes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 185
  • 10.2      Academia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 185
  • 10.3      Regional leaders………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186

11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL……………………………………… 189

12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2013-2018-INVESTMENTS, PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTION………………………. 191

13 END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………….. 242

  • 13.1      Graphene production volumes 2010-2027……………………………………………………………….. 242
  • 13.2      Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 244
    • 13.2.1        Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing…………………………………………………………………….. 246
    • 13.2.2        Few-Layer Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………. 247
    • 13.2.3        Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing………………………………………………………………………. 248
    • 13.2.4        Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing……………………………………………………………………. 248
    • 13.2.5        Graphene Quantum Dots pricing……………………………………………………………………… 249
    • 13.2.6        Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing……………………………………………………………….. 250
    • 13.2.7        Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing………………………………………………………………….. 251
    • 13.2.8        Mass production of lower grade graphene materials……………………………………….. 251
    • 13.2.9        High grade graphene difficult to mass produce………………………………………………… 251
    • 13.2.10      Bulk supply………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 252
    • 13.2.11      Commoditisation………………………………………………………………………………………………. 252
  • 13.3      Graphene producers and production capacities………………………………………………………. 253

14 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 254

  • 14.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 255
  • 14.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 255
  • 14.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 257
  • 14.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 258
  • 14.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 259

15 ADHESIVES………………………………………………………………………… 260

  • 15.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 260
  • 15.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 261
  • 15.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 262
  • 15.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 266
  • 15.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 267

16 AEROSPACE………………………………………………………………………. 268

  • 16.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 268
  • 16.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 269
    • 16.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 269
    • 16.2.2        Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 270
  • 16.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORUNTIY…………………………………………………………. 271
  • 16.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 276
  • 16.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 277

17 AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………… 279

  • 17.1      MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………. 279
  • 17.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 280
    • 17.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 282
    • 17.2.2        Thermally conductive additives………………………………………………………………………… 282
    • 17.2.3        Tires…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 282
  • 17.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 284
  • 17.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 287
  • 17.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 289

18 COATINGS………………………………………………………………………….. 291

  • 18.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 291
  • 18.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 296
    • 18.2.1        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 298
    • 18.2.1.1     Marine………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 299
    • 18.2.2        Anti-microbial…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 299
    • 18.2.3        Anti-icing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 300
    • 18.2.4        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 301
    • 18.2.5        Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………… 302
    • 18.2.6        Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 303
    • 18.2.7        Wear and abrasion resistance…………………………………………………………………………. 304
    • 18.2.8        Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………… 305
  • 18.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 306
  • 18.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 314
  • 18.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 314

19 COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………… 317

  • 19.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 318
  • 19.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 320
    • 19.2.1        Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………. 320
    • 19.2.2        Barrier packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 323
    • 19.2.3        Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 323
    • 19.2.4        Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 323
    • 19.2.5        Ballistic protection……………………………………………………………………………………………. 324
  • 19.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 324
  • 19.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 328
  • 19.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 329

20 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS………………………………………… 332

  • 20.1      FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS. 332
    • 20.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 333
    • 20.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 335
      • 20.1.2.1     Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics………………………………………………. 338
      • 20.1.2.2     Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………… 340
      • 20.1.2.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 341
      • 20.1.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 345
      • 20.1.2.5     Industrial monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 351
      • 20.1.2.6     Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 351
    • 20.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 352
    • 20.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 357
    • 20.1.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 361
  • 20.2      CONDUCTIVE INKS………………………………………………………………………………………………… 363
    • 20.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 363
    • 20.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 364
      • 20.2.2.1     RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 366
      • 20.2.2.2     Smart labels…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 368
      • 20.2.2.3     Smart clothing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 369
      • 20.2.2.4     Printable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………. 369
      • 20.2.2.5     Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………… 370
      • 20.2.2.6     Printable antennas………………………………………………………………………………………. 371
    • 20.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 373
    • 20.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 378
    • 20.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 379
  • 20.3      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS……………………………………………………… 380
    • 20.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 380
    • 20.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 382
      • 20.3.2.1     Integrated circuits………………………………………………………………………………………… 382
      • 20.3.2.2     Transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 383
      • 20.3.2.3     Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………….. 384
      • 20.3.2.4     Graphene spintronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 385
    • 20.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 386
    • 20.3.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 389
    • 20.3.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 391
  • 20.4      MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 393
    • 20.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 393
    • 20.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 394
    • 20.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 398
    • 20.4.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 399
    • 20.4.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 399
  • 20.5      PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 400
    • 20.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 400
    • 20.5.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 401
      • 20.5.2.1     Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………… 401
      • 20.5.2.2     Optical modulators………………………………………………………………………………………. 402
      • 20.5.2.3     Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 402
      • 20.5.2.4     Saturable absorbers…………………………………………………………………………………….. 404
      • 20.5.2.5     Plasmonics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 404
      • 20.5.2.6     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 405
    • 20.5.3        MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………… 406
    • 20.5.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 406
    • 20.5.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 407

21 ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION………. 408

  • 21.1      BATTERIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 410
    • 21.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 410
    • 21.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 413
      • 21.1.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)……………………………………………………………………………. 413
      • 21.1.2.2     Lithium-air batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 414
      • 21.1.2.3     Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………… 415
      • 21.1.2.4     Sodium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 415
      • 21.1.2.5     Flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………………… 415
    • 21.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 419
    • 21.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 424
    • 21.1.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 425
  • 21.2      SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 430
    • 21.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 430
    • 21.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 431
      • 21.2.2.1     Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………….. 434
    • 21.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 435
    • 21.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 438
    • 21.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 439
  • 21.3      PHOTOVOLTAICS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 441
    • 21.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 441
    • 21.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 442
      • 21.3.2.1     ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………….. 443
      • 21.3.2.2     Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………….. 443
      • 21.3.2.3     Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………… 444
      • 21.3.2.4     Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………… 444
    • 21.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 446
    • 21.3.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 448
    • 21.3.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 449
  • 21.4      FUEL CELLS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 449
    • 21.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 449
    • 21.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 451
      • 21.4.2.1     Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………. 452
    • 21.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GRAPHENE OPPORTUNITY………………………….. 452
    • 21.4.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 454
    • 21.4.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 455
  • 21.5      LED LIGHTING AND UVC……………………………………………………………………………………….. 455
    • 21.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 456
    • 21.5.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 456
      • 21.5.2.1     Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………. 457
    • 21.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 458
    • 21.5.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 459
    • 21.5.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 460
  • 21.6      OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 461
  • 21.6.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 461
  • 21.6.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 462
    • 21.6.2.1     Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………. 463
    • 21.6.2.2     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 464
    • 21.6.2.3     Drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………………………… 466
    • 21.6.2.4     Sorbent materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 466
    • 21.6.2.5     Catalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 467
    • 21.6.2.6     Separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 467
  • 21.6.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 468
  • 21.6.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 470
  • 21.6.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 471

22 FILTRATION……………………………………………………………………….. 472

  • 22.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 472
  • 22.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 473
    • 22.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 475
    • 22.2.2        Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 475
    • 22.2.3        Photocatalytic absorbents………………………………………………………………………………… 475
    • 22.2.4        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 476
  • 22.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 477
  • 22.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 479
  • 22.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 480

23 LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICAL……………………………………………. 482

  • 23.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 483
  • 23.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 486
    • 23.2.1        Cancer therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………… 490
      • 23.2.1.1     Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery…………………………………………….. 490
      • 23.2.1.2     Graphene nanosheets…………………………………………………………………………………. 490
      • 23.2.1.3     Gene delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 490
      • 23.2.1.4     Photodynamic Therapy………………………………………………………………………………… 491
    • 23.2.2        Medical implants and devices………………………………………………………………………….. 491
    • 23.2.3        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 492
    • 23.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 492
      • 23.2.4.1     FRET biosensors for DNA detection……………………………………………………………. 493
    • 23.2.5        Medical imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 494
    • 23.2.6        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 494
    • 23.2.7        Dental………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 494
    • 23.2.8        Electrophysiology…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 494
    • 23.2.9        Wearable and mobile health monitoring…………………………………………………………… 494
      • 23.2.9.1     Graphene devices……………………………………………………………………………………….. 496
      • 23.2.9.2     Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 499
      • 23.2.9.3     Skin temperature monitoring………………………………………………………………………… 502
      • 23.2.9.4     Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 503
      • 23.2.9.5     Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 504
      • 23.2.9.6     Smart footwear…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 506
  • 23.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 506
  • 23.3.1        Wearable healthcare………………………………………………………………………………………… 508
  • 23.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 513
  • 23.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 516

24 LUBRICANTS……………………………………………………………………… 517

  • 24.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 517
  • 24.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 518
  • 24.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 519
  • 24.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 521
  • 24.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 522

25 RUBBER AND TIRES…………………………………………………………… 522

  • 25.1      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 523
  • 25.2      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 523
  • 25.3      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 525
  • 25.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 526

26 SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………… 527

  • 26.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 527
  • 26.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 528
    • 26.2.1        Infrared (IR) sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 532
    • 26.2.2        Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 532
    • 26.2.2.1     Graphene foam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 533
    • 26.2.3        Pressure sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 533
    • 26.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 533
    • 26.2.5        Optical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 535
    • 26.2.6        Humidity sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 536
    • 26.2.7        Strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 536
    • 26.2.8        Acoustic sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 536
    • 26.2.9        Wireless sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 536
    • 26.2.10      Surface enhanced Raman scattering……………………………………………………………….. 536
  • 26.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 537
  • 26.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 539
  • 26.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 540

27 SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL……………………………………….. 543

  • 27.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 543
  • 27.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………….. 547
    • 27.2.1        Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 552
    • 27.2.2        Conductive yarns……………………………………………………………………………………………… 553
  • 27.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 554
  • 27.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 559
  • 27.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 560

28 OTHER MARKETS……………………………………………………………….. 562

  • 28.1      CEMENT ADDITIVES………………………………………………………………………………………………. 562
    • 28.1.1        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 562

29 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 563 (120 company profiles)

30 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……. 646 (110 company profiles)

31 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 717

TABLES

  • Table 1: Demand for graphene (tons), 2010-2027……………………………………………………………………… 66
  • Table 2: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………. 68
  • Table 3: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017………………………………………………… 69
  • Table 4: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications………………………………… 72
  • Table 5: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size…………….. 77
  • Table 6: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities………………………. 79
  • Table 7: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………. 91
  • Table 8: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
  • Table 9: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs……………………………………………….. 98
  • Table 10: Graphene quantum dot producers……………………………………………………………………………. 101
  • Table 11: Comparative properties of carbon materials……………………………………………………………… 104
  • Table 12: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes……………. 106
  • Table 13: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2027…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
  • Table 14: 2D materials types……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 109
  • Table 15: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
  • Table 16: Market opportunity assessment for phosphorene applications…………………………………. 119
  • Table 17: Market opportunity assessment for graphitic carbon nitride applications………………….. 122
  • Table 18: Market opportunity assessment for germanene applications……………………………………. 125
  • Table 19: Market opportunity assessment for graphdiyne applications…………………………………….. 128
  • Table 20: Market opportunity assessment for graphane applications……………………………………….. 130
  • Table 21: Market opportunity assessment for hexagonal boron nitride applications…………………. 134
  • Table 22: Market opportunity assessment for molybdenum disulfide applications……………………. 139
  • Table 23: Market opportunity assessment for Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2) applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
  • Table 24: Market opportunity assessment for silicene applications………………………………………….. 145
  • Table 25: Market opportunity assessment for stanine/tinene applications………………………………… 147
  • Table 26: Market opportunity assessment for tungsten diselenide applications……………………….. 149
  • Table 27: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials……………………………… 153
  • Table 28: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………. 155
  • Table 29: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • Table 30: Main production methods for graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 157
  • Table 31: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………. 164
  • Table 32: Graphene synthesis methods, by company………………………………………………………………. 175
  • Table 33: Graphene market structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
  • Table 34: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014…………………………………………… 185
  • Table 35: Leading graphene patentees…………………………………………………………………………………….. 186
  • Table 36: Industrial graphene patents in 2014………………………………………………………………………….. 186
  • Table 37: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 241
  • Table 38: Types of graphene and prices…………………………………………………………………………………… 243
  • Table 39: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer……………………………………………………………. 245
  • Table 40: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………… 246
  • Table 41: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer…………………………………………………………….. 246
  • Table 42: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer…………………………………………………………. 247
  • Table 43: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer……………………………………………………………. 248
  • Table 44: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer……………………………………………………… 248
  • Table 45: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer………………………………………………………………….. 249
  • Table 46: Production capacities of graphene producers, current and planned, metric tons……… 251
  • Table 47: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing……………………………………………………… 253
  • Table 48: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing……………………………………….. 254
  • Table 49: Market size for graphene  in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………… 255
  • Table 50: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………….. 255
  • Table 51: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 256
  • Table 52: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives………………………………………………………. 258
  • Table 53: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives………………………………………… 260
  • Table 54: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………. 260
  • Table 55: Market size for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………… 261
  • Table 56: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………………. 262
  • Table 57: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………….. 263
  • Table 58: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market……………………………….. 264
  • Table 59: Market drivers for use of graphene in aerospace……………………………………………………… 266
  • Table 60: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace………………………………………………… 269
  • Table 61: Market size for graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………………….. 270
  • Table 62: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace……………………………………… 271
  • Table 63: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………….. 273
  • Table 64: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market………………………………. 274
  • Table 65: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………….. 277
  • Table 66: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry…………………………….. 281
  • Table 67: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………………… 282
  • Table 68: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry…………………. 282
  • Table 69: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 285
  • Table 70: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector………………………………. 286
  • Table 71: Properties of nanocoatings……………………………………………………………………………………….. 289
  • Table 72: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings…………………………………………… 295
  • Table 73: Markets for nanocoatings………………………………………………………………………………………….. 305
  • Table 74: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market……………………….. 309
  • Table 75: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………… 311
  • Table 76: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market………………………………….. 312
  • Table 77: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites…………………………………………………….. 316
  • Table 78: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites…………………………. 319
  • Table 79: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites……………………………………………….. 319
  • Table 80: Market size for graphene in composites……………………………………………………………………. 322
  • Table 81: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market………………….. 323
  • Table 82: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………… 325
  • Table 83: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market…………………………….. 327
  • Table 84: Market drivers for use of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films………… 331
  • Table 85: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…… 335
  • Table 86: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 336
  • Table 87: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 340
  • Table 88: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 346
  • Table 89: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films……………………….. 350
  • Table 90: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………… 352
  • Table 91: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $………….. 354
  • Table 92: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 358
  • Table 93: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks………………………………………………. 361
  • Table 94: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………….. 362
  • Table 95: Printable electronics products…………………………………………………………………………………… 364
  • Table 96: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics……………………………………… 366
  • Table 97: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 368
  • Table 98: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks…………………………………. 372
  • Table 99: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks……………………………… 373
  • Table 100: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types………………………………………………………………………………………….. 376
  • Table 101: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………… 376
  • Table 102: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 378
  • Table 103: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors……………………………………. 382
  • Table 104: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 383
  • Table 105: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…. 385
  • Table 106: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 385
  • Table 107: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 388
  • Table 108: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices…………………………………………… 391
  • Table 109: Market size for graphene in memory devices………………………………………………………….. 396
  • Table 110: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 397
  • Table 111: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics……………………………………………………… 398
  • Table 112: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators………………………….. 400
  • Table 113: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics………………………………………………… 403
  • Table 114: Market size for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………………….. 404
  • Table 115: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market……………………………… 405
  • Table 116: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries………………………………………………………. 408
  • Table 117: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………. 414
  • Table 118: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 416
  • Table 119: Market size for graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………… 418
  • Table 120: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………… 419
  • Table 121: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in batteries………………………………………. 420
  • Table 122: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………… 421
  • Table 123: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market……………………………….. 423
  • Table 124: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors…………………………………………… 428
  • Table 125: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries……… 430
  • Table 126: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………. 430
  • Table 127: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 433
  • Table 128: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………….. 434
  • Table 129: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………… 435
  • Table 130: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027………………………………….. 435
  • Table 131: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market……………………. 437
  • Table 132: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………………….. 439
  • Table 133: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 444
  • Table 134: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 445
  • Table 135: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics………………………………………………………. 445
  • Table 136: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market……………………………………… 446
  • Table 137: Market drivers for use of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…………………… 447
  • Table 138: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………… 450
  • Table 139: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………….. 451
  • Table 140: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…… 451
  • Table 141: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market……………………………….. 452
  • Table 142: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC………………………………….. 454
  • Table 143: Applications of graphene in lighting………………………………………………………………………… 454
  • Table 144: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC…………………………………………………. 456
  • Table 145: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market………………… 457
  • Table 146: Market impediments for graphene in lighting………………………………………………………….. 457
  • Table 147: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas……………………………………………………………… 460
  • Table 148: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market………………………………………………… 460
  • Table 149: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 466
  • Table 150: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market…………………. 467
  • Table 151: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the oil and gas market…………… 468
  • Table 152: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market……………………………. 468
  • Table 153: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration………………………………………………………… 470
  • Table 154: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation………………………….. 472
  • Table 155: Market size for graphene in filtration……………………………………………………………………….. 475
  • Table 156: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 476
  • Table 157: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………. 477
  • Table 158: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market………… 478
  • Table 159: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market…………… 481
  • Table 160: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………… 485
  • Table 161: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical……………………….. 485
  • Table 162: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 495
  • Table 163: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare………………………………………….. 504
  • Table 164: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets… 508
  • Table 165: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……. 509
  • Table 166: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027……………………. 510
  • Table 167: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare………………………………. 512
  • Table 168: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market……. 513
  • Table 169: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants……………………………………………………… 515
  • Table 170: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………………… 516
  • Table 171: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………. 517
  • Table 172: Market size for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………….. 518
  • Table 173: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants…………………………………….. 518
  • Table 174: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 519
  • Table 175: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market……………………………… 520
  • Table 176: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires…………………………………………………………… 521
  • Table 177: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market………….. 521
  • Table 178: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market…… 522
  • Table 179: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027………………………………….. 522
  • Table 180: Market challenges for graphene in rubber and tires………………………………………………… 523
  • Table 181: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors………………………………………………………… 525
  • Table 182: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………… 527
  • Table 183: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………….. 529
  • Table 184: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 533
  • Table 185: Market size for graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………….. 535
  • Table 186: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the sensors market……………………… 536
  • Table 187: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market………………………………… 538
  • Table 188: Types of smart textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 541
  • Table 189: Smart textile products……………………………………………………………………………………………… 542
  • Table 190: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………………………. 542
  • Table 191: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 545
  • Table 192: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 549
  • Table 193: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………… 550
  • Table 194: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market…………………………………. 553
  • Table 195: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………. 556
  • Table 196: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………… 556
  • Table 197: Market impediments for graphene in textiles…………………………………………………………… 557
  • Table 198: Market challenges for graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………………….. 558
  • Table 199: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………. 561
  • Table 200: Graphene producers target market matrix………………………………………………………………. 566
  • Table 201: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………….. 645
  • Table 202: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix………………………… 648

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Graphene production capacity, current and planned…………………………………………………… 66
  • Figure 2: Demand for graphene, 2010-2027………………………………………………………………………………. 67
  • Figure 3: Vittoria bike tires incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • Figure 4: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027………………………………………………………………………. 71
  • Figure 5: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2017………………………………. 77
  • Figure 6: Global consumption of graphene 2016, by region……………………………………………………….. 83
  • Figure 7: 15-inch single-layer graphene sheet being prepared in the Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences………………………………………………….. 87
  • Figure 8: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………. 93
  • Figure 9: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
  • Figure 10: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
  • Figure 11: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)…………………… 98
  • Figure 12: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………… 100
  • Figure 13: Graphene quantum dots………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
  • Figure 14: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103
  • Figure 15: Schematic of 2-D materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 110
  • Figure 16: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Figure 17: Black Phosphorus crystal………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
  • Figure 18: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • Figure 19: Graphitic carbon nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • Figure 20: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology……………………………. 121
  • Figure 21: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………. 123
  • Figure 22: Graphdiyne structure……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
  • Figure 23: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………… 129
  • Figure 24: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………… 131
  • Figure 25: BN nanosheet textiles application……………………………………………………………………………. 133
  • Figure 26: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………………………………………….. 135
  • Figure 27: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
  • Figure 28: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………. 137
  • Figure 29: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 138
  • Figure 30: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide……………………………………………………….. 140
  • Figure 31: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
  • Figure 32: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 142
  • Figure 33: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
  • Figure 34: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 146
  • Figure 35: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 146
  • Figure 36: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 148
  • Figure 37: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)………………………………………………………………………. 151
  • Figure 38: Graphene synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
  • Figure 39: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.. 160
  • Figure 40: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium…………………………………………………………. 163
  • Figure 41: Methods of synthesizing high-quality graphene……………………………………………………….. 165
  • Figure 42: Roll-to-roll graphene production process…………………………………………………………………. 170
  • Figure 43: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process……………………………………………………….. 171
  • Figure 44: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene………………………… 173
  • Figure 45: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer……………………… 177
  • Figure 46: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014………………………………………….. 185
  • Figure 47: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene……………………………………………………. 189
  • Figure 48: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………….. 242
  • Figure 49: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament……………………………….. 254
  • Figure 50: Graphene Adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 260
  • Figure 51: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives………………………………………… 263
  • Figure 52: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 264
  • Figure 53: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace……………………………………….. 272
  • Figure 54: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace………. 273
  • Figure 55: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………… 274
  • Figure 56: Graphene-based automotive components……………………………………………………………….. 279
  • Figure 57: Antistatic graphene tire……………………………………………………………………………………………. 281
  • Figure 58: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 283
  • Figure 59: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 285
  • Figure 60: Demand for graphene in automotive(tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 285
  • Figure 61: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT…………………………………………………………………… 295
  • Figure 62: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 300
  • Figure 63: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate………………………………………. 303
  • Figure 64: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 304
  • Figure 65: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 310
  • Figure 66: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 311
  • Figure 67: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………. 311
  • Figure 68: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………. 324
  • Figure 69: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………….. 325
  • Figure 70: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………….. 326
  • Figure 71: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application………………………………………….. 334
  • Figure 72: Flexible graphene touch screen………………………………………………………………………………. 334
  • Figure 73: Galapad Settler smartphone……………………………………………………………………………………. 334
  • Figure 74: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode…………………… 335
  • Figure 75: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………. 338
  • Figure 76: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film…………………………. 338
  • Figure 77: Foldable graphene E-paper…………………………………………………………………………………….. 339
  • Figure 78: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 341
  • Figure 79: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 344
  • Figure 80: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 344
  • Figure 81: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 345
  • Figure 82: C2Sense flexible sensor………………………………………………………………………………………….. 346
  • Figure 83: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 348
  • Figure 84: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………….. 348
  • Figure 85: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System………………………………………………………… 349
  • Figure 86: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system………………………………………………………. 350
  • Figure 87: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market…………………………………………………………………………………. 353
  • Figure 88: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $…………. 354
  • Figure 89: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 355
  • Figure 90: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 357
  • Figure 91: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 358
  • Figure 92: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………….. 364
  • Figure 93: Flexible RFID tag…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 365
  • Figure 94: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………… 369
  • Figure 95: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………. 370
  • Figure 96: Printed antennas for aircraft…………………………………………………………………………………….. 370
  • Figure 97: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………… 372
  • Figure 98: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market………………… 373
  • Figure 99: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types………………………………………………………………………………………….. 375
  • Figure 100: Graphene IC in wafer tester…………………………………………………………………………………… 381
  • Figure 101: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array………………………………………………….. 381
  • Figure 102: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………………………………………………………………… 383
  • Figure 103: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits….. 386
  • Figure 104: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 387
  • Figure 105: The GF1 Graphene Watch…………………………………………………………………………………….. 391
  • Figure 106: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate………………………………… 393
  • Figure 107: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)………………………………………………………………………….. 394
  • Figure 108: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt.. 394
  • Figure 109: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip………………………………………………………………………………. 395
  • Figure 110: Stretchable SWCNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics……………… 395
  • Figure 111: Hybrid graphene phototransistors………………………………………………………………………….. 401
  • Figure 112: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors…………………………. 402
  • Figure 113: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive…………………………………………………………………………………………… 402
  • Figure 114: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408
  • Figure 115: Energy harvesting textile……………………………………………………………………………………….. 411
  • Figure 116: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery……………………………………………………………………………….. 414
  • Figure 117: Printed 1.5V battery……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 416
  • Figure 118: H600 concept car…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 418
  • Figure 119: Anion concept car………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 418
  • Figure 120: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 421
  • Figure 121: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………….. 422
  • Figure 122: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor……………………………………………………………………. 429
  • Figure 123: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger……………………………………………………………………. 431
  • Figure 124: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor……………………………………………………………………. 432
  • Figure 125: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………. 436
  • Figure 126: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode………………………………………………… 441
  • Figure 127: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper………………………………… 443
  • Figure 128: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………….. 446
  • Figure 129: LG OLED flexible lighting panel…………………………………………………………………………….. 455
  • Figure 130: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight………………………………………….. 456
  • Figure 131: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors……………………… 462
  • Figure 132: Directa Plus Grafysorber……………………………………………………………………………………….. 465
  • Figure 133: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 466
  • Figure 134: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 474
  • Figure 135: Graphene anti-smog mask…………………………………………………………………………………….. 475
  • Figure 136: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………… 477
  • Figure 137: Graphene filtration membrane……………………………………………………………………………….. 479
  • Figure 138: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 491
  • Figure 139: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis……. 492
  • Figure 140: Connected human body………………………………………………………………………………………… 493
  • Figure 141: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor……………………………………………………………….. 494
  • Figure 142: Graphene-based E-skin patch……………………………………………………………………………….. 495
  • Figure 143: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 499
  • Figure 144: Graphene medical patch……………………………………………………………………………………….. 500
  • Figure 145: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………… 501
  • Figure 146: Mimo baby monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………… 501
  • Figure 147: Nanowire skin hydration patch………………………………………………………………………………. 502
  • Figure 148: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………. 503
  • Figure 149: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor………………………………………………………………………. 504
  • Figure 150: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 507
  • Figure 151: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 508
  • Figure 152: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 510
  • Figure 153: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027………………….. 511
  • Figure 154: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………… 519
  • Figure 155: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………. 523
  • Figure 156: GFET sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 531
  • Figure 157: First generation point of care diagnostics………………………………………………………………. 532
  • Figure 158: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic…………………………………………………………. 533
  • Figure 159: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………… 537
  • Figure 160: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 552
  • Figure 161: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2027 revenue forecast (million $)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 553
  • Figure 162 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 554
  • Figure 163: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 555
  • Figure 164: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 555
  • Figure 165: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………. 557