GRAPHENE MARKET

The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027

Published 4 January 2018 | 501 pages | 212 tables, 143 figures | Price £1000 | Table of contents

Future Markets, Inc. produced the first ever market report on graphene and the latest edition is now over 500 pages long with an additional 70 pages of content from the previous edition (2017).  We have greatly expanded the sections covering flexible electronics, wearables and energy and details on industry demand in tons (current and projected) has been added for key markets. An additional 25 company profiles have also been incorporated.

A number of graphene-enhanced products came to the market in 2017 in consumer electronic equipment, , composites, energy storage etc. and commercial development will grow further in 2018 in automotive, flexible electronics, coatings and sensors.

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities for 2017.
  • Current graphene products.
  • Market outlook for 2018.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • Market demand in tons 2017-2027.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Assessment of applications for other 2D materials.
  • Over 230 company profiles.
The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
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The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
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The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 36

  • 1.1     Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 41

  • 2.1     Two-dimensional (2D) materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
  • 2.2     Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
    • 2.2.1       The market in 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
    • 2.2.2       Products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
    • 2.2.3       The market in 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 2.2.4       Production in 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
    • 2.2.5       Graphene investments 2016-2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
    • 2.2.6       Market outlook for 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
    • 2.2.7       Remarkable properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
    • 2.2.8       Global funding and initiatives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
    • 2.2.9       Products and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
    • 2.2.10      Production…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
    • 2.2.11      Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
    • 2.2.12      Market and technical challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
  • 2.3     Key players……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
    • 2.3.1       Asia-Pacific…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
    • 2.3.1.1     Australia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
    • 2.3.2       North America…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
    • 2.3.3       Europe………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

3    PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS………………………………………. 62

  • 3.1     Categorization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

4    OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE…………………………………………………… 64

  • 4.1     History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • 4.2     Forms of graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • 4.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • 4.4     3D Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
  • 4.5     Graphene Quantum Dots………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
    • 4.5.1       Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
    • 4.5.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
      • 4.5.2.1     Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
      • 4.5.2.2     Energy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
      • 4.5.2.3     Biomedicine and healthcare………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69
    • 4.5.2.4     Other…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69
    • 4.5.2.5     Pricing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
    • 4.5.3       Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70

5    CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE…………………………. 72

  • 5.1     Comparative properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
  • 5.2     Cost and production………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • 5.3     Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • 5.4     Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………… 74

6    OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………… 76

  • 6.1     Black phosphorus/Phosphorene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 76
    • 6.1.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77
    • 6.1.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
  • 6.2     C2N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
    • 6.2.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
    • 6.2.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
  • 6.3     Carbon nitride………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
    • 6.3.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
    • 6.3.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
  • 6.4     Germanene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
    • 6.4.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
    • 6.4.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
  • 6.5     Graphdiyne……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
    • 6.5.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
    • 6.5.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
  • 6.6     Graphane………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
    • 6.6.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
    • 6.6.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
  • 6.7     Hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
    • 6.7.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
    • 6.7.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
    • 6.7.3       Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
  • 6.8     Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
    • 6.8.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
    • 6.8.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • 6.9     Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
    • 6.9.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
    • 6.9.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
  • 6.10        Silicene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 88
    • 6.10.1      Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
    • 6.10.2      Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
  • 6.11        Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
    • 6.11.1      Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
    • 6.11.2      Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
  • 6.12        Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
    • 6.12.1      Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
    • 6.12.2      Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
  • 6.13        Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials…………………………………………………………………………….. 93

7    GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS……………………………………………………….. 94

8    GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION…………………………………………………………….. 110

9    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………….. 113

  • 9.1     Standards……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113
  • 9.2     Environmental, health and safety regulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
    • 9.2.1       Europe……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
    • 9.2.2       United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113
    • 9.2.3       Asia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
  • 9.3     Workplace exposure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114

10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS……………………………………………. 115

  • 10.1        Fabrication processes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
  • 10.2        Academia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
  • 10.3        Regional leaders……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115

11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL……………………………………… 118

12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2013-2018-INVESTMENTS, PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTION………………………. 120

13 END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………….. 154

  • 13.1        Graphene production volumes 2010-2027……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
  • 13.2        Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
    • 13.2.1      Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
    • 13.2.2      Few-Layer Graphene pricing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
    • 13.2.3      Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
    • 13.2.4      Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
    • 13.2.5      Graphene Quantum Dots pricing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
    • 13.2.6      Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
    • 13.2.7      Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
    • 13.2.8      Mass production of lower grade graphene materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 160
    • 13.2.9      High grade graphene difficult to mass produce…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 160
    • 13.2.10    Bulk supply……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160
    • 13.2.11    Commoditisation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
  • 13.3        Graphene producers and production capacities…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161

14 ADHESIVES………………………………………………………………………… 163

  • 14.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163
  • 14.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
  • 14.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 165
  • 14.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
  • 14.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 168

15 AEROSPACE………………………………………………………………………. 168

  • 15.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
  • 15.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169
    • 15.2.1      Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
    • 15.2.2      Coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
  • 15.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORUNTIY………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
  • 15.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • 15.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 175

16 AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………… 176

  • 16.1        MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 176
  • 16.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
    • 16.2.1      Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178
    • 16.2.2      Thermally conductive additives…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178
    • 16.2.3      Tires…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 179
  • 16.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
  • 16.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
  • 16.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184

17 LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICAL……………………………………………. 184

  • 17.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
  • 17.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 187
    • 17.2.1      Cancer therapy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
      • 17.2.1.1        Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
      • 17.2.1.2        Graphene nanosheets…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
      • 17.2.1.3        Gene delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
      • 17.2.1.4        Photodynamic Therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190
    • 17.2.2      Medical implants and devices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
    • 17.2.3      Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
    • 17.2.4      Biosensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
      • 17.2.4.1        FRET biosensors for DNA detection……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 191
    • 17.2.5      Medical imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
    • 17.2.6      Tissue engineering……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 192
    • 17.2.7      Dental……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
    • 17.2.8      Electrophysiology……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
    • 17.2.9      Wearable and mobile health monitoring……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 192
      • 17.2.9.1        Graphene devices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 194
      • 17.2.9.2        Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 196
      • 17.2.9.3        Skin temperature monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 198
      • 17.2.9.4        Hydration sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 199
      • 17.2.9.5        Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200
      • 17.2.9.6        Smart footwear………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
  • 17.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 202
    • 17.3.1      Wearable healthcare………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203
  • 17.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208
  • 17.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 210

18 COATINGS………………………………………………………………………….. 210

  • 18.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 210
  • 18.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 214
    • 18.2.1      Anti-corrosion coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 215
    • 18.2.1.1        Marine…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 216
    • 18.2.2      Anti-microbial……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 216
    • 18.2.3      Anti-icing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
    • 18.2.4      Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
    • 18.2.5      Heat protection…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 218
    • 18.2.6      Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 219
    • 18.2.7      Wear and abrasion resistance………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 219
    • 18.2.8      Smart windows…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 220
  • 18.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
    • 18.3.1      Thermal barrier coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223
    • 18.3.2      Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223
    • 18.3.3      Anti-microbial coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 224
    • 18.3.4      De-icing or anti-icing coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 224
    • 18.3.5      Abrasion and wear resistant coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
    • 18.3.6      Anti-corrosion coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 224
  • 18.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227
  • 18.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 228

19 COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………… 229

  • 19.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 229
  • 19.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230
    • 19.2.1      Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 231
    • 19.2.2      Barrier packaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 232
    • 19.2.3      Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding……………………………………………… 232
    • 19.2.4      Wind turbines……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 233
    • 19.2.5      Ballistic protection…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233
    • 19.2.6      Cement additives……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 233
  • 19.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233
  • 19.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 236
  • 19.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 237

20 RUBBER AND TIRES…………………………………………………………… 238

  • 20.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 238
  • 20.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 238
  • 20.3        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240
  • 20.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 241

21 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS………………………………………… 241

  • 21.1        FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS……………………………………………. 242
    • 21.1.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242
    • 21.1.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 243
      • 21.1.2.1        Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics………………………………………………………………………………………… 246
      • 21.1.2.2        Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248
      • 21.1.2.3        Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248
      • 21.1.2.4        Wearable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 251
      • 21.1.2.5        Industrial monitoring………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
      • 21.1.2.6        Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 256
    • 21.1.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 257
      • 21.1.4      Transparent conductive electrodes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 260
    • 21.1.5      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 260
    • 21.1.6      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 263
  • 21.2        TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 264
    • 21.2.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 264
    • 21.2.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265
      • 21.2.2.1        Integrated circuits………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265
      • 21.2.2.2        Transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 266
      • 21.2.2.3        Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits………………………………………………………………………………………………. 266
      • 21.2.2.4        Graphene spintronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 267
    • 21.2.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 268
    • 21.2.4      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 270
    • 21.2.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 271
  • 21.3        MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 272
    • 21.3.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 272
    • 21.3.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 273
    • 21.3.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 275
    • 21.3.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 276
    • 21.3.5      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276
  • 21.4        PHOTONICS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276
    • 21.4.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277
    • 21.4.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277
      • 21.4.2.1        Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277
      • 21.4.2.2        Optical modulators………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 278
      • 21.4.2.3        Photodetectors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 278
      • 21.4.2.4        Saturable absorbers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 280
      • 21.4.2.5        Plasmonics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 280
      • 21.4.2.6        Fiber lasers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 280
    • 21.4.3      MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 281
    • 21.4.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 281
    • 21.4.5      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 281

22 ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION………. 282

  • 22.1        BATTERIES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 284
    • 22.1.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 284
    • 22.1.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 286
      • 22.1.2.1        Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 286
      • 22.1.2.2        Lithium-air batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 286
      • 22.1.2.3        Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 287
      • 22.1.2.4        Sodium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 287
      • 22.1.3      Flexible and stretchable batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 287
    • 22.1.4      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 290
    • 22.1.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 294
    • 22.1.6      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 296
  • 22.2        SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 297
    • 22.2.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 297
    • 22.2.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 297
      • 22.2.2.1        Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors………………………………………………………………………………………………. 299
    • 22.2.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 301
    • 22.2.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 303
    • 22.2.5      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 303
  • 22.3        PHOTOVOLTAICS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 304
    • 22.3.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 304
    • 22.3.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 305
      • 22.3.2.1        ITO replacement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 305
      • 22.3.2.2        Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells…………………………………………………………………………. 306
      • 22.3.2.3        Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 306
      • 22.3.2.4        Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 306
    • 22.3.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 307
    • 22.3.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 309
    • 22.3.5      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 310
  • 22.4        FUEL CELLS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 310
    • 22.4.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 310
    • 22.4.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 311
      • 22.4.2.1        Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 312
    • 22.4.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GRAPHENE OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………………….. 312
      • 22.4.3.1        Graphene opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 312
    • 22.4.4      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 313
    • 22.4.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 314
  • 22.5        LED LIGHTING AND UVC…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 314
    • 22.5.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 314
    • 22.5.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 315
      • 22.5.2.1        Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 315
    • 22.5.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 316
    • 22.5.4      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 317
    • 22.5.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 318
  • 22.6        OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 318
    • 22.6.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 319
    • 22.6.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 319
      • 22.6.2.1        Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 320
      • 22.6.2.2        Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 321
      • 22.6.2.3        Drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 322
      • 22.6.2.4        Sorbent materials………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 322
      • 22.6.2.5        Catalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 322
      • 22.6.2.6        Separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 322
    • 22.6.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 323
    • 22.6.4      MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 325
    • 22.6.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 326

23 FILTRATION……………………………………………………………………….. 326

  • 23.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 326
  • 23.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 327
    • 23.2.1      Water filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328
    • 23.2.2      Gas separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 328
    • 23.2.3      Photocatalytic absorbents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 328
    • 23.2.4      Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 329
  • 23.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 330
  • 23.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 332
  • 23.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 332

24 LUBRICANTS……………………………………………………………………… 333

  • 24.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 333
  • 24.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 333
  • 24.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 334
  • 24.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 336
  • 24.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 336

25 SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………… 337

  • 25.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 337
  • 25.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 338
    • 25.2.1      Infrared (IR) sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 340
    • 25.2.2      Electrochemical and gas sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 340
    • 25.2.2.1        Graphene foam……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 341
    • 25.2.3      Pressure sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 341
    • 25.2.4      Biosensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 341
    • 25.2.5      Optical sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 343
    • 25.2.6      Humidity sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 343
    • 25.2.7      Strain sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 344
    • 25.2.8      Acoustic sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 344
    • 25.2.9      Wireless sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 344
    • 25.2.10    Surface enhanced Raman scattering……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 344
  • 25.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 344
  • 25.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34625.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 347

26 SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL……………………………………….. 349

  • 26.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 349
  • 26.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 351
    • 26.2.1      Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 354
    • 26.2.2      Conductive yarns……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 355
  • 26.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 356
  • 26.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 361
  • 26.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 361

27 CONDUCTIVE INKS……………………………………………………………… 362

  • 27.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 362
  • 27.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 363
    • 27.2.1      RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 365
    • 27.2.2      Smart labels……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 367
    • 27.2.3      Smart clothing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 367
    • 27.2.4      Printable sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 367
    • 27.2.5      Printed batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 367
    • 27.2.6      Printable antennas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 369
  • 27.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 370
  • 27.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 374
  • 27.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 374

28 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 375

  • 28.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 375
  • 28.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 376
  • 28.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 377
  • 28.4        MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 378
  • 28.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 378

29 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 379-435 (114 company profiles)

30 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……. 436-481 (120 company profiles)

31 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 482

TABLES

  • Table 1: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
  • Table 2: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
  • Table 3: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • Table 4: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size………………………………………………………………… 52
  • Table 5: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities………………………………………………………………………….. 54
  • Table 6: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
  • Table 7: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
  • Table 8: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
  • Table 9: Graphene quantum dot producers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
  • Table 10: Comparative properties of carbon materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
  • Table 11: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………….. 73
  • Table 12: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2027………………… 74
  • Table 13: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2………………………………………………… 77
  • Table 14: Markets and applications of phosphorene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • Table 15: Markets and applications of C2N……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 79
  • Table 16: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
  • Table 17: Markets and applications of graphdiyne…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
  • Table 18: Markets and applications of graphane……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
  • Table 19: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
  • Table 20: Markets and applications of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
  • Table 21: Markets and applications of Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)…………………………………………………………….. 88
  • Table 22: Markets and applications of silicene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
  • Table 23: Markets and applications of stanene/tinene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
  • Table 24: Markets and applications of tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
  • Table 25: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials…………………………………………………………………………………… 93
  • Table 26: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market………………………………………………………………….. 94
  • Table 27: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market………………………………….. 94
  • Table 28: Main production methods for graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 95
  • Table 29: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………………………………………………………….. 100
  • Table 30: Graphene synthesis methods, by company………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 108
  • Table 31: Graphene market structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
  • Table 32: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
  • Table 33: Leading graphene patentees………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • Table 34: Industrial graphene patents in 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
  • Table 35: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015…………………………………………. 154
  • Table 36: Types of graphene and prices………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • Table 37: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
  • Table 38: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
  • Table 39: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
  • Table 40: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
  • Table 41: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
  • Table 42: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
  • Table 43: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 160
  • Table 44: Production capacities of graphene producers, current and planned, metric tons………………………………………………………….. 161
  • Table 45: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163
  • Table 46: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
  • Table 47: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
  • Table 48: Market size for graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 165
  • Table 49: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………………………………………………………………….. 165
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167
  • Table 51: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market…………………………………………………………………………………… 168
  • Table 52:  Graphene product and application developers in the adhesives industry……………………………………………………………………. 168
  • Table 53: Market drivers for use of graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
  • Table 54: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
  • Table 55: Market size for graphene in aerospace………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 171
  • Table 56: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………………………………………. 172
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………………………………… 174
  • Table 57: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Table 58: Graphene product and application developers in the aerospace industry…………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Table 59: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………………………… 176
  • Table 60: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • Table 61: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
  • Table 62: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry…………………………………………………………………….. 180
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182
  • Table 63: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………………………………………………………… 183
  • Table 64: Graphene product and application developers in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………. 184
  • Table 65: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market…………………………………………………………………. 185
  • Table 66: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………………………………………………………………. 187
  • Table 67: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical……………………………………………………………………………… 188
  • Table 68: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof………………….. 195
  • Table 69: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
  • Table 70: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets………………………………………………………. 205
  • Table 71: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets………………………………………………………….. 206
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………………………………………. 207
  • Table 72: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare…………………………………………………………………………………….. 208
  • Table 73: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market…………………………………………………………. 209
  • Table 74: Graphene product and application developers in the biomedical and healthcare industry……………………………………………. 210
  • Table 75: Properties of nanocoatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 211
  • Table 76: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 215
  • Table 77: Markets for nanocoatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 221
  • Table 78: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market…………………………………………………………………………… 224
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 226
  • Table 79: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market……………………………………………………………………………………… 227
  • Table 80: Graphene product and application developers in the coatings industry………………………………………………………………………… 228
  • Table 81: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 229
  • Table 82: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………….. 231
  • Table 83: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 231
  • Table 84: Market size for graphene in composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233
  • Table 85: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market………………………………………………………………………. 234
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235
  • Table 86: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market…………………………………………………………………………………. 236
  • Table 87: Graphene product and application developers in the composites industry…………………………………………………………………… 237
  • Table 88: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 238
  • Table 89: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market……………………………………………………………….. 238
  • Table 90: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market………………………………………………………… 239
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………………………… 239
  • Table 91: Market challenges for graphene in rubber and tires……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 240
  • Table 92: Companies developing graphene-based products in rubber and tires………………………………………………………………………….. 241
  • Table 93: Market drivers for use of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films……………………………………………………………. 242
  • Table 94: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films………………………………………………………. 245
  • Table 95: Comparison of ITO replacements…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • Table 96: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 249
  • Table 97: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 254
  • Table 98: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…………………………………………………………………………… 257
  • Table 99: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays…………… 258
  • Table 100: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $……………………………………………………………. 259
  • Table 101: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market…. 262
  • Table 102: Graphene product and application developers in transparent conductive films………………………………………………………….. 263
  • Table 103: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components……………………………………… 264
  • Table 104: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors……………………………………………………………………………………….. 266
  • Table 105: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………… 267
  • Table 106: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…………………………………………………….. 268
  • Table 107: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components……………………… 269
  • Table 108: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………….. 271
  • Table 109: Graphene product and application developers in transistors and integrated circuits………………………………………………….. 271
  • Table 110: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices………………………………………………………………………………………………. 272
  • Table 111: Market size for graphene in memory devices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 275
  • Table 112: Graphene product and application developers in memory devices…………………………………………………………………………….. 276
  • Table 113: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market……………………………………. 276
  • Table 114: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 277
  • Table 115: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators……………………………………………………………………………… 278
  • Table 116: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 280
  • Table 117: Market size for graphene in photonics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 281
  • Table 118: Graphene product and application developers in photonics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 281
  • Table 119: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market…………………………………………………………………………………. 282
  • Table 120: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 284
  • Table 121: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………………………………………………………….. 288
  • Table 122: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………… 289
  • Table 123: Market size for graphene in batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 291
  • Table 124: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………………………………………………………….. 292
  • Table 125: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in batteries………………………………………………………………………………………….. 292
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 294
  • Table 126: Graphene product and application developers in the battery industry………………………………………………………………………… 294
  • Table 127: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………… 296
  • Table 128: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 297
  • Table 129: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries…………………………………………………………. 298
  • Table 130: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………………………………………….. 298
  • Table 131: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof……………………….. 300
  • Table 132: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 301
  • Table 133: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………………………………. 301
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………………………………………………….. 302
  • Table 134: Graphene product and application developers in supercapacitors……………………………………………………………………………… 303
  • Table 135: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market……………………………………………………………………….. 304
  • Table 136: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 304
  • Table 137: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 308
  • Table 138: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 308
  • Table 139: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 308
  • Table 140: Graphene product and application developers in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………….. 309
  • Table 141: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market…………………………………………………………………………………………. 310
  • Table 142: Market drivers for use of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………………………………………………. 310
  • Table 143: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…………………………………………………………………. 312
  • Table 144: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………………………………………………………………………………… 313
  • Table 145: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………………………………. 313
  • Table 146: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market…………………………………………………………………………………… 313
  • Table 147: Graphene product and application developers in fuel cells………………………………………………………………………………………… 314
  • Table 148: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC……………………………………………………………………………………… 314
  • Table 149: Applications of graphene in lighting……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 315
  • Table 150: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 316
  • Table 151: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market…………………………………………………………………….. 317
  • Table 152: Market impediments for graphene in lighting……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 318
  • Table 153: Graphene product and application developers in the LED and UVC lighting market………………………………………………….. 318
  • Table 154: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 319
  • Table 155: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 319
  • Table 156: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas………………….. 323
  • Table 157: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market……………………………………………………………………… 324
  • Table 158: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the oil and gas market………………………………………………………………. 324
  • Table 159: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market……………………………………………………………………………….. 325
  • Table 160: Graphene product and application developers in the oil and gas market……………………………………………………………………. 326
  • Table 161: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 326
  • Table 162: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation……………………………………………………………………………… 328
  • Table 163: Market size for graphene in filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 330
  • Table 164: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market…………………………………………………. 330
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 331
  • Table 165: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market……………………………………………………………. 332
  • Table 166: Graphene product and application developers in the filtration industry………………………………………………………………………. 332
  • Table 167: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 333
  • Table 168: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 334
  • Table 169: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 334
  • Table 170: Market size for graphene in lubricants………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 334
  • Table 171: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants………………………………………………………………………………………… 335
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 335
  • Table 172: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………………………………………………. 336
  • Table 173:  Graphene product and application developers in the lubricants industry…………………………………………………………………… 336
  • Table 174: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 337
  • Table 175: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 338
  • Table 176: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 339
  • Table 177: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor……………………………………………. 343
  • Table 178: Market size for graphene in sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 344
  • Table 179: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the sensors market………………………………………………………………………….. 345
  • Table 180: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market…………………………………………………………………………………….. 347
  • Table 181: Graphene product and application developers in the sensors industry………………………………………………………………………. 347
  • Table 182: Types of smart textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 349
  • Table 183: Smart textile products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 349
  • Table 184: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………………………………………………………………………….. 350
  • Table 185: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications………… 351
  • Table 186: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………. 353
  • Table 187: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel……………………………………………………………………………………. 354
  • Table 188: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market…………………………………………………………………………………….. 357
  • Table 189: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………………………………………………………….. 359
  • Table 50: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 360
  • Table 190: Market impediments for graphene in textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 361
  • Table 191: Market challenges for graphene in textiles and apparel……………………………………………………………………………………………… 361
  • Table 192:  Graphene product and application developers in the textiles industry……………………………………………………………………….. 361
  • Table 193: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 362
  • Table 194: Comparative properties of conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 363
  • Table 195: Printable electronics products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 365
  • Table 196: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 366
  • Table 197: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………… 368
  • Table 198: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………… 371
  • Table 199: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………….. 372
  • Table 200: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types. 373
  • Table 201: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 374
  • Table 202: Graphene product and application developers in conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………. 374
  • Table 203: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 375
  • Table 204: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………………………………. 376
  • Table 205: Market size for graphene  in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 377
  • Table 206: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing………………………………………………………………………………………. 377
  • Table 207: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market……………………………………….. 378
  • Table 208: Graphene product and application developers in the 3D printing industry………………………………………………………………….. 378
  • Table 209: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 379
  • Table 210: Graphene producers target market matrix………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 382
  • Table 211: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets……………………………………………………………… 436
  • Table 212: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix……………………………………………………………………………. 438

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
  • Figure 2: Graphene production capacity, current and planned……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene, 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
  • Figure 3: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
  • Figure 4: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2017………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
  • Figure 5: Global consumption of graphene 2016, by region…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
  • Figure 6: 15-inch single-layer graphene sheet being prepared in the Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • Figure 7: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
  • Figure 8: Graphite and graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
  • Figure 9: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • Figure 10: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • Figure 11: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
  • Figure 12: Graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
  • Figure 13: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite…………………….. 72
  • Figure 14: Black phosphorus structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77
  • Figure 15: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal………………………………. 78
  • Figure 16: Schematic of germanene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
  • Figure 17: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
  • Figure 18: Schematic of Graphane crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
  • Figure 19: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
  • Figure 20: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • Figure 21: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor………………………………………………………………. 86
  • Figure 22: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
  • Figure 23: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
  • Figure 24: Silicene structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
  • Figure 25: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89
  • Figure 26: Silicene transistor………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
  • Figure 27: Crystal structure for stanene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
  • Figure 28: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
  • Figure 29: Schematic of tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
  • Figure 30: Graphene synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
  • Figure 31: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
  • Figure 32: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 99
  • Figure 33: Methods of synthesizing high-quality graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
  • Figure 34: Roll-to-roll graphene production process…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
  • Figure 35: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 105
  • Figure 36: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene……………………………………………………………………………. 107
  • Figure 37: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer………………………………………………………………………….. 110
  • Figure 38: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014……………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • Figure 39: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119
  • Figure 40: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155
  • Figure 41: Graphene Adhesives…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
  • Figure 42: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………………. 166
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 167
  • Figure 44: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace……………………………………………………………………………………………. 173
  • Figure 45: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace………………………………………………………….. 174
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Figure 46: Graphene-based automotive components…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 178
  • Figure 47: Antistatic graphene tire……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 179
  • Figure 48: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………….. 181
  • Figure 49: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………….. 182
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in automotive(tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
  • Figure 50: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel…………………………………………………………………………….. 191
  • Figure 51: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis………………………………………………………….. 192
  • Figure 52: Connected human body………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
  • Figure 53: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
  • Figure 54: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
  • Figure 55: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs…………………………………. 197
  • Figure 56: Graphene medical patch……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 198
  • Figure 57: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 199
  • Figure 58: Mimo baby monitor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 199
  • Figure 59: Nanowire skin hydration patch…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200
  • Figure 60: Wearable sweat sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 201
  • Figure 61: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
  • Figure 62: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $……………………………………….. 204
  • Figure 63: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $……………………………………….. 204
  • Figure 64: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………….. 207
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………… 208
  • Figure 65: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215
  • Figure 66: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating…………………………………………… 218
  • Figure 67: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate………………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
  • Figure 68: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market…………………………………………………………………………………… 221
  • Figure 69: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………………………………………………………….. 225
  • Figure 70: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………………………………………………………….. 226
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227
  • Figure 71: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………………………………………………………….. 234
  • Figure 72: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market………………………………………………………………………… 235
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………………………………………………………… 236
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………………………. 240
  • Figure 73: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application……………………………………………………………………………………………… 244
  • Figure 74: Flexible graphene touch screen………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 244
  • Figure 75: Galapad Settler smartphone……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 245
  • Figure 76: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • Figure 77: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte… 247
  • Figure 78: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film…………………………………………………………………………….. 248
  • Figure 79: Foldable graphene E-paper………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 248
  • Figure 80: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 250
  • Figure 81: Softceptor sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 252
  • Figure 82: BeBop Media Arm Controller………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 252
  • Figure 83: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 253
  • Figure 84: C2Sense flexible sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 253
  • Figure 85: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 255
  • Figure 86: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
  • Figure 87: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 256
  • Figure 88: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 256
  • Figure 89: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market. 259
  • Figure 90: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $…………………………………………………………….. 259
  • Figure 91: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $………………………….. 260
  • Figure 92: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates……………………………………… 261
  • Figure 93: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene….. 262
  • Figure 94: Graphene IC in wafer tester………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 265
  • Figure 95: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 266
  • Figure 96: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right). 267
  • Figure 97: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits………………………………………………………… 269
  • Figure 98: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market………………………………………. 270
  • Figure 99: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate……………………………………………………………………………………… 273
  • Figure 100: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 274
  • Figure 101: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt…………………………………………………… 275
  • Figure 102: Hybrid graphene phototransistors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 279
  • Figure 103: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………………………………………………………… 279
  • Figure 104: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive………. 280
  • Figure 105: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors………………………………. 283
  • Figure 106: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 285
  • Figure 107: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 288
  • Figure 108: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 289
  • Figure 109: H600 concept car………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 291
  • Figure 110: Anion concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 291
  • Figure 111: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market……………………………… 293
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 294
  • Figure 112: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 298
  • Figure 113: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 299
  • Figure 114: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 300
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………………………. 303
  • Figure 115: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 306
  • Figure 116: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 307
  • Figure 117: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………… 309
  • Figure 118: LG OLED flexible lighting panel………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 316
  • Figure 119: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight……………………………………………………………………………………………… 316
  • Figure 120: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………. 320
  • Figure 121: Directa Plus Grafysorber…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 322
  • Figure 122: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water.. 323
  • Figure 123: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts……………………………………………… 329
  • Figure 124: Graphene anti-smog mask………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 329
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 332
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………………………………………………… 336
  • Figure 125: GFET sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 341
  • Figure 126: First generation point of care diagnostics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 342
  • Figure 127: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 343
  • Figure 128: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market……………………………………………………………………………. 346
  • Figure 129: Conductive yarns………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 356
  • Figure 130: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2027 revenue forecast (million $)……………………… 357
  • Figure 131 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016……………………………………………… 358
  • Figure 132: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate. 359
  • Figure 133: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate…. 359
  • Figure 43: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 361
  • Figure 134: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 364
  • Figure 135: BGT Materials graphene ink product…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 364
  • Figure 136: Flexible RFID tag………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 366
  • Figure 137: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 369
  • Figure 138: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 369
  • Figure 139: Printed antennas for aircraft………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 370
  • Figure 140: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 371
  • Figure 141: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market………………………………………………………………….. 372
  • Figure 142: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 373
  • Figure 143: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament…………………………………………………………………………………. 376