Graphene and 2D Materials Investment and Pricing Report 2018, 2nd edition

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Future Markets, Inc. produced the first ever market report on graphene in 2010 and has constantly tracked the market since. We also publish the industry focused Graphene Magazine.

Graphene is the most widely studied and developed 2D nanomaterial and its discovery can be considered as a defining point in the research and development of stable, truly 2D material systems.

Graphene exhibits a unique combination of mechanical, thermal, electronic and optical properties that provide opportunities for new innovation in flexible displays, transistors, photosensors, RFID tags, solar cells, secondary batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, conductive inks, EMI shielding, heat insulation, anti-oxidation and LEDs across multiple industries including consumer electronics, automotive, aerospace, medicine, energy, 3D printing, polymer composites, wireless technology, filtration and coatings.

The global market for graphene continues to grow with weekly product, technology and production developments,  public and private investments and start-ups. There are now over 200 companies either producing graphene or developing applications, with as many multi-nationals conducting R&D on these materials.

However, relatively few graphene products have reached the market yet, and until recently those that have mainly incorporate graphene additives to enhance toughness, conductivity and flexibility. This report seeks to identify investment opportunities for graphene and looks at current commercial and planned activity, most promising applications by market and pricing for graphene materials. This paints a complete picture of the current graphene landscape, from producer capacities & pricing to end products, now and in the future.

Researchers have also looked beyond graphene in recent years to other layered 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and phosphorene. These materials possess the intrinsic properties of graphene, such as high electrical conductivity, insulating and semi-conducting properties, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength, gas diffusion barriers, high chemical stability and radiation shielding, but crucially also possess a semiconductor band gap. Theoretical and experimental works on these materials have rapidly increased in the past couple of years and they are now commercially available from several advanced materials producers.

This 266 page report examines:

  • Advantages and shortcomings of graphene as a technology component.
  • Pricing landscape for graphene, by types and producers.
  • Production volumes by graphene producer.
  • Provides a map of the current competitive landscape by market.
  • Investments in graphene over the past 12 months.
  • Market impediments for graphene by target market.
  • Profiles all the major players in graphene production.
  • Profiles all the major application developers including current and intended products.
  • Market analysis of 2D Materials beyond graphene.

Published April 2018 | 266 pages | Table of contents

Graphene and 2D Materials Investment and Pricing Report 2018, 2nd edition
Graphene and 2D Materials Investment and Pricing Report 2018, 2nd edition
PDF by email or download.
Graphene and 2D Materials Investment and Pricing Report 2018, 2nd edition
Graphene and 2D Materials Investment and Pricing Report 2018, 2nd edition
Print edition (including tracked delivery).
Graphene and 2D Materials Investment and Pricing Report 2018, 2nd edition
Graphene and 2D Materials Investment and Pricing Report 2018, 2nd edition
PDF and print edition (including tracked delivery).

To purchase by invoice (bank transfer or cheque) contact info@futuremarketsinc.com

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 22

  • 1.1    Investment analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
  • 1.2    Market impediment analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 27

  • 2.1    Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
  • 2.2    Production in 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
  • 2.3    Graphene investments 2016-2018…………………………………………………………………………………. 30
  • 2.4    Market outlook………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31

3    TYPES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE GRAPHENE……………. 38

  • 3.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38

4    COMMERCIAL GRAPHENE PRODUCTION……………………………… 40

  • 4.1    Large area graphene films production……………………………………………………………………………. 40
  • 4.2    Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets production…………………………………….. 41
  • 4.3    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 4.3.1     Production directly from natural graphite ore………………………………………………………….. 44
    • 4.3.2     Alternative starting materials………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
    • 4.3.3     Quality……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
  • 4.4    Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………….. 45
    • 4.4.1     Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)……………………………………………………………………………. 46
    • 4.4.2     Graphene nanoribbons…………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
    • 4.4.3     Large-area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………… 47
    • 4.4.4     Graphene oxide (GO)…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
  • 4.5    Pros and cons of graphene production methods……………………………………………………………. 49
  • 4.6    Production methods by producer and products offered………………………………………………….. 51

5    GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION………………………………………………………………. 53

6    PRODUCTION VOLUMES IN METRIC TONS 2010-2027……………. 57

  • 6.1    Global demand 2010-2027…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57

7    GRAPHENE PRICING…………………………………………………………….. 58

  • 7.1    Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing……………………………………………………………………………………. 60
  • 7.2    Few-Layer Graphene pricing………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • 7.3    Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing…………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • 7.4    Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
  • 7.5    Graphene Quantum Dots pricing……………………………………………………………………………………. 63
  • 7.6    Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing……………………………………………………………………………… 64
  • 7.7    Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing………………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • 7.8    Mass production of lower grade graphene materials……………………………………………………… 65
  • 7.9    High grade graphene difficult to mass produce………………………………………………………………. 66
  • 7.10      Bulk supply…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • 7.11      Commoditisation………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67

8    GLOBAL GRAPHENE PRODUCERS AND PRODUCTION CAPACITIES, CURRENT AND PLANNED……………………………………. 68

9    COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN GRAPHENE…………………….. 69

  • 9.1    Short-term growth…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
  • 9.2    Medium-term growth………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
  • 9.3    Adhesives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
    • 9.3.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
    • 9.3.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 73
    • 9.3.3     Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………………. 74
    • 9.3.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
  • 9.4    Aerospace………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
    • 9.4.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
    • 9.4.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 79
    • 9.4.3     Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………………. 80
    • 9.4.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
  • 9.5    Automotive……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
    • 9.5.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
    • 9.5.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 85
    • 9.5.3     Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………………. 86
    • 9.5.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
  • 9.6    Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
    • 9.6.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
    • 9.6.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 92
    • 9.6.3     Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………………. 94
    • 9.6.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
  • 9.7    Composites…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
    • 9.7.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
    • 9.7.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 99
    • 9.7.3     Graphene investment potential…………………………………………………………………………….. 100
    • 9.7.4     Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
  • 9.8    Conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 104
    • 9.8.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
    • 9.8.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………… 106
    • 9.8.3     Graphene investment potential…………………………………………………………………………….. 107
    • 9.8.4     Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
  • 9.9    Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
    • 9.9.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
    • 9.9.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………… 116
    • 9.9.3     Graphene investment potential…………………………………………………………………………….. 119
    • 9.9.4     Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
  • 9.10      Energy……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
    • 9.10.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
    • 9.10.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 132
    • 9.10.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 9.10.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 142
  • 9.11      Filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 143
    • 9.11.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143
    • 9.11.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 144
    • 9.11.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 145
    • 9.11.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
  • 9.12      Life sciences and healthcare……………………………………………………………………………………. 148
    • 9.12.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148
    • 9.12.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 151
    • 9.12.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 152
    • 9.12.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 155
  • 9.13      Lighting…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
    • 9.13.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 9.13.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 158
    • 9.13.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 159
    • 9.13.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 160
  • 9.14      Lubricants………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
    • 9.14.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
    • 9.14.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 161
    • 9.14.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 162
    • 9.14.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 163
  • 9.15      Oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
    • 9.15.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
    • 9.15.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 165
    • 9.15.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 165
    • 9.15.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 166
  • 9.16      Rubber and tires………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167
    • 9.16.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 167
    • 9.16.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 168
    • 9.16.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 169
    • 9.16.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
  • 9.17      Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
    • 9.17.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 171
    • 9.17.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 173
    • 9.17.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 175
    • 9.17.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 178
  • 9.18      Textiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
    • 9.18.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 178
    • 9.18.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 179
    • 9.18.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 180
    • 9.18.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 182
  • 9.19      3D Printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
    • 9.19.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 183
    • 9.19.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 184
    • 9.19.3        Graphene investment potential………………………………………………………………………… 185
    • 9.19.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 186

10 OTHER 2D MATERIALS……………………………………………………….. 187

  • 10.1      Beyond moore’s law…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
  • 10.2      Batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
  • 10.3      PHOSPHORENE……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
    • 10.3.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 191
      • 10.3.1.1     Fabrication methods…………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
      • 10.3.1.2     Challenges for the use of phosphorene in devices………………………………………. 193
    • 10.3.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193
      • 10.3.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193
      • 10.3.2.2     Field effect transistors………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
      • 10.3.2.3     Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
      • 10.3.2.4     Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 194
      • 10.3.2.5     Supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………………………… 195
      • 10.3.2.6     Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195
      • 10.3.2.7     Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195
    • 10.3.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 196
  • 10.4      GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)………………………………………………………………. 197
    • 10.4.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
    • 10.4.2        Synthesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 197
    • 10.4.3        C2N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 197
    • 10.4.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 198
      • 10.4.4.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 198
      • 10.4.4.2     Filtration membranes…………………………………………………………………………………… 198
      • 10.4.4.3     Photocatalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………… 198
      • 10.4.4.4     Batteries (LIBs)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 199
      • 10.4.4.5     Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 199
    • 10.4.5        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 199
  • 10.5      GERMANENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200
    • 10.5.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 200
    • 10.5.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
    • 10.5.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
    • 10.5.2.2     Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 201
    • 10.5.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 201
  • 10.6      GRAPHDIYNE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
    • 10.6.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
    • 10.6.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203
      • 10.6.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203
      • 10.6.2.2     Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 203
      • 10.6.2.3     Sodium ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 203
      • 10.6.2.4     Separation membranes……………………………………………………………………………….. 203
      • 10.6.2.5     Water filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………… 204
      • 10.6.2.6     Photocatalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………… 204
      • 10.6.2.7     Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 204
    • 10.6.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 204
  • 10.7      GRAPHANE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
    • 10.7.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
    • 10.7.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
      • 10.7.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
      • 10.7.2.2     Hydrogen storage………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
    • 10.7.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 207
  • 10.8      HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE……………………………………………………………………………… 207
    • 10.8.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 208
    • 10.8.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209
      • 10.8.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209
      • 10.8.2.2     Fuel cells……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209
      • 10.8.2.3     Adsorbents…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209
      • 10.8.2.4     Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209
      • 10.8.2.5     Textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209
      • 10.8.2.6     Biomedical…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
    • 10.8.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 210
  • 10.9      MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)………………………………………………………………………… 211
    • 10.9.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212
    • 10.9.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 213
      • 10.9.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 213
      • 10.9.2.2     Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 214
      • 10.9.2.3     Piezoelectrics………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
      • 10.9.2.4     Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 214
      • 10.9.2.5     Filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 215
      • 10.9.2.6     Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215
      • 10.9.2.7     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 215
    • 10.9.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 216
  • 10.10    RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)……………………………………. 216
    • 10.10.1      Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
    • 10.10.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
      • 10.10.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217
    • 10.10.3      Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 218
  • 10.11    SILICENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 218
    • 10.11.1      Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 219
    • 10.11.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 220
      • 10.11.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
      • 10.11.2.2       Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………. 220
      • 10.11.2.3       Thermoelectrics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
      • 10.11.2.4       Batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 221
      • 10.11.2.5       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 221
    • 10.11.3      Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 221
  • 10.12    STANENE/TINENE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222
    • 10.12.1      Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 222
    • 10.12.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223
      • 10.12.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 223
    • 10.12.3      Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 224
  • 10.13    TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE……………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
    • 10.13.1      Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
    • 10.13.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
      • 10.13.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 225
    • 10.13.3      Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 226
  • 10.14    ANTIMONENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 226
    • 10.14.1      Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 226
    • 10.14.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 226
  • 10.15    DIAMENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 227
    • 10.15.1      Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 227
    • 10.15.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 227
  • 10.16    INDIUM SELENIDE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227
    • 10.16.1      Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 227
    • 10.16.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
      • 10.16.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 228
  • 10.17    COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS…………. 229
  • 10.18    2D MATERIALS PRODUCERS……………………………………………………………………………….. 230

11 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 235

  • 11.1      Types of graphene produced, by producer………………………………………………………………. 235
  • 11.2      Key players………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 239
    • 11.2.1        Asia-Pacific………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 239
      • 11.2.1.1     Australia………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 241
    • 11.2.2        North America………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242
    • 11.2.3        Europe……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 243
  • 11.3      Markets targeted, by producer…………………………………………………………………………………. 243

12 GRAPHENE PRODUCT DEVELOPERS AND END USERS………. 247

  • 12.1      Industrial collaborations and licensing……………………………………………………………………… 247
  • 12.2      Markets targeted, by product developers and end users………………………………………….. 250

13 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 254

TABLES

  • Table 1: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………. 27
  • Table 2: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017………………………………………………… 29
  • Table 3: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications………………………………… 31
  • Table 4: Properties of graphene and competing materials………………………………………………………….. 38
  • Table 5: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market………………… 39
  • Table 6: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
  • Table 7: Main production methods for graphene………………………………………………………………………… 41
  • Table 8: Pros and cons of graphene synthesis/production methods…………………………………………… 48
  • Table 9: Graphene production methods, by producer…………………………………………………………………. 51
  • Table 10: Graphene market structure…………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
  • Table 11: Global demand for graphene, 2010-2017 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
  • Table 12: Types of graphene and prices…………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
  • Table 13: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer………………………………………………………………. 60
  • Table 14: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • Table 15: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer………………………………………………………………. 62
  • Table 16: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer……………………………………………………………. 62
  • Table 17: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer……………………………………………………………… 64
  • Table 18: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer……………………………………………………….. 64
  • Table 19: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………. 65
  • Table 20: Production capacities of graphene producers, current and planned, metric tons………… 68
  • Table 21: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size…………… 71
  • Table 22: Applications of adhesives, by market………………………………………………………………………….. 73
  • Table 23: Companies developing graphene-based products in adhesives…………………………………. 74
  • Table 24: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the adhesives market………………………. 75
  • Table 25: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………….. 75
  • Table 26: Market impediments for graphene in the adhesives market……………………………………….. 77
  • Table 27: Applications of graphene in the aerospace market……………………………………………………… 78
  • Table 28: Companies developing graphene-based products in aerospace………………………………… 79
  • Table 29: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the aerospace market………………………. 80
  • Table 30: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace…………………………………. 81
  • Table 31: Market impediments for graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………. 84
  • Table 32: Applications of graphene in the automotive market…………………………………………………….. 84
  • Table 33: Companies developing graphene-based products in the automotive industry……………. 85
  • Table 34: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the automotive market……………………… 86
  • Table 35: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry…………….. 87
  • Table 36: Market impediments for graphene in automotive………………………………………………………… 90
  • Table 37: Applications of graphene in coatings………………………………………………………………………….. 90
  • Table 38: Companies developing graphene-based products in the coatings industry………………… 92
  • Table 39: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 94
  • Table 40: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market…………………… 94
  • Table 41: Market impediments for graphene in coatings…………………………………………………………….. 97
  • Table 42: Applications of graphene in composites……………………………………………………………………… 97
  • Table 43: Companies developing graphene-based products in composites……………………………….. 99
  • Table 44: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the composites market…………………… 100
  • Table 45: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites……………………………………….. 101
  • Table 46: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market……………. 102
  • Table 47: Market impediments for graphene in composites……………………………………………………… 104
  • Table 48: Companies developing graphene-based products in conductive inks………………………. 106
  • Table 49: Opportunities for graphene in printed electronics……………………………………………………… 108
  • Table 50: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks…………………………………. 109
  • Table 51: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks……………………………… 111
  • Table 52: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………….. 111
  • Table 53: Applications of graphene in electronics…………………………………………………………………….. 113
  • Table 54: Companies developing graphene-based products in electronics………………………………. 116
  • Table 55: Market summary and revenues for graphene in electronics……………………………………… 119
  • Table 56: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in electronics………………………………. 125
  • Table 57: Market impediments for graphene in electronics………………………………………………………. 126
  • Table 58: Applications of graphene in energy storage and generation…………………………………….. 130
  • Table 59: Companies developing graphene-based products in energy……………………………………. 133
  • Table 60: Market summary and revenues for graphene in energy……………………………………………. 137
  • Table 61: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………… 140
  • Table 62: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics………………………………………………………… 141
  • Table 63: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the energy market…………………… 141
  • Table 64: Market impediments for graphene in energy…………………………………………………………….. 142
  • Table 65: Applications of graphene in filtration…………………………………………………………………………. 143
  • Table 66: Companies developing graphene-based products in filtration…………………………………… 144
  • Table 67: Market summary and revenues for graphene in filtration………………………………………….. 145
  • Table 68: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration market…………………. 147
  • Table 69: Market impediments for graphene in filtration…………………………………………………………… 148
  • Table 70: Applications of graphene in life sciences and healthcare………………………………………….. 149
  • Table 71: Companies developing graphene-based products in life sciences and healthcare…… 151
  • Table 72: Market summary and revenues for graphene in life sciences and healthcare…………… 152
  • Table 73: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……… 153
  • Table 74: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets…… 154
  • Table 75: Market impediments for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market……………. 156
  • Table 76: Market impediments for graphene in life sciences and healthcare……………………………. 157
  • Table 77: Applications of graphene in lighting………………………………………………………………………….. 158
  • Table 78: Companies developing graphene-based products in lighting……………………………………. 158
  • Table 79: Market summary and revenues for graphene in lighting…………………………………………… 159
  • Table 80: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market…………………… 160
  • Table 81: Market impediments for graphene in lighting…………………………………………………………….. 160
  • Table 82: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………………….. 161
  • Table 83: Companies developing graphene-based products in lubricants………………………………… 161
  • Table 84: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the lubricants market……………………… 162
  • Table 85: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lubricants market………………. 162
  • Table 86: Market impediments for graphene in lubricants………………………………………………………… 163
  • Table 87: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market…………………………………………………… 164
  • Table 88: Companies developing graphene-based products in oil and gas……………………………… 165
  • Table 89: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market……………………. 165
  • Table 90: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the oil and gas market…………….. 166
  • Table 91: Market impediments for graphene in oil and gas………………………………………………………. 167
  • Table 92: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires…………………………………………………………….. 167
  • Table 93: Companies developing graphene-based products in rubber and tires………………………. 168
  • Table 94: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market……………. 169
  • Table 95: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market…….. 170
  • Table 96: Market impediments for graphene in rubber and tires………………………………………………. 170
  • Table 97: Applications of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………………………………. 172
  • Table 98: Companies developing graphene-based products in sensors…………………………………… 173
  • Table 99: Market size for graphene in sensors…………………………………………………………………………. 175
  • Table 100: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration market……………………… 176
  • Table 101: Market impediments for graphene in sensors…………………………………………………………. 178
  • Table 102: Applications of graphene in textiles………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • Table 103: Companies developing graphene-based products in textiles………………………………….. 179
  • Table 104: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the textiles market……………………….. 180
  • Table 105: Global market for smart clothing and apparel, 2014-2021, units and revenues (US$). 181
  • Table 106: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in textiles…………………………………………. 181
  • Table 107: Market impediments for graphene in textiles…………………………………………………………… 182
  • Table 108: Applications of graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………… 183
  • Table 109: Companies developing graphene-based products in the 3D printing industry………… 184
  • Table 110: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the 3D printing market…………………. 185
  • Table 111: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the 3D printing market…………… 185
  • Table 112: Market impediments for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………….. 186
  • Table 113: 2D materials types………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 187
  • Table 114: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
  • Table 115: Market opportunity assessment for phosphorene applications……………………………….. 196
  • Table 116: Market opportunity assessment for graphitic carbon nitride applications………………… 199
  • Table 117: Market opportunity assessment for germanene applications………………………………….. 201
  • Table 118: Market opportunity assessment for graphdiyne applications…………………………………… 204
  • Table 119: Market opportunity assessment for graphane applications……………………………………… 207
  • Table 120: Market opportunity assessment for hexagonal boron nitride applications……………….. 210
  • Table 121: Market opportunity assessment for molybdenum disulfide applications………………….. 216
  • Table 122: Market opportunity assessment for Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2) applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 218
  • Table 123: Market opportunity assessment for silicene applications………………………………………… 221
  • Table 124: Market opportunity assessment for stanine/tinene applications………………………………. 224
  • Table 125: Market opportunity assessment for tungsten diselenide applications……………………… 226
  • Table 126: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials……………………………. 229
  • Table 127: Graphene producers and types produced matrix……………………………………………………. 235
  • Table 128: Graphene producers target market matrix………………………………………………………………. 243
  • Table 129: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………….. 247
  • Table 130: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix………………………… 250

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………………. 28
  • Figure 2: Graphene production capacity, current and planned…………………………………………………… 29
  • Figure 3: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………… 38
  • Figure 4: Graphene synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
  • Figure 5: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unravelled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF. 44
  • Figure 6: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium……………………………………………………………… 47
  • Figure 7: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer………………………….. 53
  • Figure 8: Global demand for graphene 2010-2017 in tons/year………………………………………………….. 58
  • Figure 9: Demand for graphene, by market, 2017………………………………………………………………………. 70
  • Figure 10: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027…………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Figure 11: Graphene epoxy adhesive…………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • Figure 12: Investment opportunity for graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………….. 77
  • Figure 13: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace………………………………… 83
  • Figure 14: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive sector………………. 89
  • Figure 15: Investment opportunity for graphene in the coatings market……………………………………… 96
  • Figure 16: Investment opportunity for graphene in the composites market………………………………. 103
  • Figure 17: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
  • Figure 18: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………….. 106
  • Figure 19: Vorbeck Materials Vor-inkTM conductive electronics printed through flexographic techniques………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 108
  • Figure 20: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market………………… 111
  • Figure 21: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application………………………………………….. 112
  • Figure 22: Galapad Settler smartphone……………………………………………………………………………………. 113
  • Figure 23:Flexible graphene touchscreen…………………………………………………………………………………. 116
  • Figure 24: Potential addressable market for graphene in electronics……………………………………….. 122
  • Figure 25: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market…………………………………………………………………………………. 123
  • Figure 26: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
  • Figure 27: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
  • Figure 28: H600 concept car…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
  • Figure 29: Anion concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
  • Figure 30: Graphene anti-smog mask………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
  • Figure 31: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 150
  • Figure 32: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
  • Figure 33: Directa-Plus Grafysorber…………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
  • Figure 34: Antistatic graphene tire……………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
  • Figure 35: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………….. 178
  • Figure 36: Schematic of 2-D materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 189
  • Figure 37: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………… 191
  • Figure 38: Black Phosphorus crystal………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
  • Figure 39: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
  • Figure 40: Graphitic carbon nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………. 197
  • Figure 41: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology……………………………. 198
  • Figure 42: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………. 200
  • Figure 43: Graphdiyne structure……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 202
  • Figure 44: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………… 206
  • Figure 45: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………… 208
  • Figure 46: BN nanosheet textiles application……………………………………………………………………………. 210
  • Figure 47: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………………………………………….. 212
  • Figure 48: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………… 213
  • Figure 49: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………. 214
  • Figure 50: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 215
  • Figure 51: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide……………………………………………………….. 217
  • Figure 52: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 219
  • Figure 53: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 219
  • Figure 54: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
  • Figure 55: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 222
  • Figure 56: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 223
  • Figure 57: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 225
  • Figure 58: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)………………………………………………………………………. 228
  • Figure 59: 15-inch single-layer graphene sheet being prepared in the Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences……………………………………………….. 240

 

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